September 30, 2023

Exploring the Possibilities: Building a Barn on Your Property

Can I build a barn on my property?

When looking at building a barn on your property, consider your unique needs, climate, budget, lifestyle, and preferences. The barn is a spot to rest from summer’s midday heat, a place for animals to seek shelter from thunderstorms and to put up hay or feed horses. It can be for housing livestock and storing feed. 

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Barns can be for equipment storage, event venues, in-law suites, workshops, primary residences, or vacation rentals. Look at the materials you will use, style, size, ventilation, design, storage, security, and finishing options. Understand the legal and practical aspects first to avoid inconveniences. This title will take you through the whole procedure. 

Zoning Regulations and Permits

Evaluating local zoning laws and regulations

A zoning law dictates acceptable methods of land use for real property inside zoning districts. It determines which properties can coexist in different areas of the city. Before starting the ­process of building a pole barn, ask your local building inspector to see if ­you need a permit, zoning variance, or other waivers for the project. 

Let the inspector know the purpose of the barn. You may want to use the structure for storage or agricultural purposes. The inspector may want to see plans or blueprints and a property survey to ensure the facility meets setback guidelines. 

Acquiring necessary permits and approvals

You will need to get a Zoning Permit or Land Use Permit, which is approval from the authorities at your local municipality to build the barn on your land within the statutes of your local zoning ordinances. Sometimes, a Building Permit is required in addition to the Zoning Permit. Inquire with your local officials about the requirements for your project. Your township or municipality may require the drawings to have an Engineered Seal.

Assessing Your Property

Conducting a thorough property analysis

There is a need for expert insight and advice on what to consider before building a barn. It does not matter if you are refurbishing an old barn or building a new one. Evaluate property condition and quality of construction.

Determining the ideal location for the barn

The lay of the land determines where you can place a barn. Check slope, drainage, and prevailing weather, and optimize the location for these considerations. Water should drain away from the barn rather than down to the barn. You should know how much space is needed for your barn. 

Choosing the Barn Style and Size

Exploring different barn styles and their features

Rice barns are a type of barn used to dry and store harvested rice. They are built differently depending on location. A house barn combines both a barn and living space. House barns were constructed to help warm human living areas and prevent thieves from stealing animals.

The Gambrel barn is one of the most versatile barn styles, featuring a distinct Gambrel roof with a double slope on each side; this architectural design has been a popular choice for centuries for its aesthetics.

Shed Row barns are space-saving benefits, consisting of stalls lined up along a single linear path. They maintain functionality and aesthetics. The stalls in this barn are in a line, sharing walls, saving money and resources.

The Dutch features that set this barn style apart include its broad gable roof, which often extends lower than other barn types, providing ample space and protection from harsh weather conditions. They are characterized by their large central columned aisle flanked on either side by smaller bays for storing hay or housing livestock. The structural support system within the barn has intricate joinery techniques, making it very strong and durable.

A round barn allows for better air circulation, reducing excess moisture that can lead to mold growth and rotting wood. Unlike traditional rectangular structures, their curved walls help distribute wind pressure evenly throughout the building, making them less prone to storm damage.

Determining the appropriate size for your needs

A standard 24′ x 24′ barn can be enough to start, but you may want to expand, hence more space. The size of the structure depends on the intended use of the building and your budget. Account for any future expansion or changes in use when considering the size. Keep in mind any zoning or building regulations in your area that may restrict the size or height of the building.

Foundation and Site Preparation

Preparing the site for construction

Before you can begin construction on your pole barn, prepare the site. That includes excavating, grading the land, and installing drainage systems. The cost of site preparation will vary depending on the size and complexity of the project.

Try to avoid wet areas, low spots, and big trees. It has to be slightly elevated, level, and a sunny spot away from big trees, and septic lines, well. Do some excavation work to remove the topsoil and level your site. Remove all topsoil and vegetation a minimum of 4′ beyond the perimeter of your building dimensions. 

Considering foundation options for the barn

A concrete frost wall is the best foundation for any custom building. The site should be cleared, and footing trenches dug below grade by code. Choose the foundation that best suits your needs and budget, load requirements, and soil.

The foundation is responsible for supporting the structure’s weight, and bringing stability. There is a range of foundation options available, and the cost will vary depending on the type of foundation you choose.

Materials and Construction Methods

Selecting suitable materials for the barn’s structure

Wrong materials mean that what is inside will not benefit from adequate protection. It could lead to long-term issues such as the inability to withstand future expansion or certain weather conditions. Select high-quality and suitable components for your structure. Proper material ensures durability and safety. 

Choose materials that can withstand the test of time and withstand the elements. Consider load-bearing capacity, wind and snow loads, and resistance to pests and decay. There are more cost-effective and sustainable options available that may exceed structural requirements. Investing in quality materials may increase the initial costs, but the long-term decision can save money on repairs and replacements in the future. 

Exploring different construction techniques

There are several different types of construction for barns, including pole barns, steel framed, and timber-framed. Each style has benefits and disadvantages, so understand the differences before determining which technique would suit your needs. 

Electrical and Plumbing Considerations

Assessing the need for electrical and plumbing systems

What you need to install electrical and plumbing systems in a barn depends on the specific system you want to install. Some of the most common electrical and plumbing systems for pole barns are electrical systems, plumbing, and HVAC. The electrical system includes the wiring and fixtures for lights, outlets, and other electrical devices. The plumbing system includes the piping and fixtures for water, sewage, and other liquids. The HVAC system includes the ductwork and equipment for heating and cooling the barn. 

If you need help deciding which electrical and plumbing systems are best for your barn, consult a contractor or engineer. They help you choose the right systems and design the perfect needs. Once you have chosen the electrical and plumbing systems, now budget for them. The cost of materials and labor can add up quickly, so plan. Include the cost of electrical and plumbing systems in your budget. If you are paying for the barn yourself, save money by buying materials and hiring labor locally.

Understanding the installation process and requirements

Ensure that the base for the barn is all cleaned up and leveled out, ready for installation. Take care of fixing the anchors and putting together the entire structure. If there is a requirement for certification for your barn, be prepared to conduct the installation.

Ventilation and Insulation

Ensuring proper airflow and ventilation inside the barn

Use fans on one side to exhaust warm air out, drawing cool air in through inlets on the other side of the building. Air temperature and airflow within a barn can be controlled. Keep mechanically-ventilated barns closed in the summer. Operate the exhaust fans and inlets to keep the temperature from rising. Fans inside the barn can increase airflow but without much air exchange as sidewall exhaust fans. 

Insulating the barn for temperature control

Insulation practices will help you control heat loss and gain and manage the airflow in and out of your barn. Insulation helps reduce heat loss, prevent air infiltration, and improve energy efficiency. Spray foam is a barn insulation option.

Flooring and Stall Design

Choosing suitable flooring materials for different areas

You can have your floor in concrete, popcorn asphalt, stone dust, dirt, or clay. Concrete is a popular option, which attracts less dust and moisture. Popcorn asphalt is another popular option for barn flooring, like stone dust. Choose an option that has good drainage and give, like popcorn asphalt or gravel and sand.

Designing comfortable and functional stalls

The stall is the functional unit of a barn that provides a suitable environment for the horse and handler. The stall design should provide adequate ventilation and flooring material, be well-lit, and have a door or gate that is wide and safe.

Storage and Organizational Features

Incorporating storage solutions within the barn

Use a magnetic bar for tools, screws, and nails, a pegboard for tool storage, and open shelving. 

Implementing organizational features for efficiency

Organize your barn by reducing clutter, creating a hazard-free space, and a tack-cleaning station. Be creative about storage solutions.

Lighting and Security

Installing appropriate lighting fixtures

Choosing the right lighting solution depends on the space itself. Incandescent lights overheating can cause barn fires when used with an old or improperly installed fixture. LEDs offer better peace of mind in this area.

Traditional barn lights feature a classic metal shade and attach to a wall with an extruding gooseneck arm or can be a pendant-style lighting fixture hanging down inside a room. They have a neck that sticks out and points the lighting fixture down.

Enhancing security measures for the barn

Secure the barn door latch by installing the lock strike and the strike trim to your lock. Test the emergency release and install the latch handle.

Exterior Design and Finishing Touches

Adding aesthetic elements to the barn’s exterior

Barn doors can upgrade any home or commercial space, providing function and an elegant or rustic aesthetic. Browse farmhouse exterior home design photos to discover decor ideas.

Considering landscaping and surrounding features

  • Function
  • Maintenance
  • Environmental impact
  • Budget 
  • Visual appeal 

Maintenance and Upkeep

Establishing a maintenance routine for the barn

  • Keep your barn well-ventilated. 
  • Check the roof, windows, and doors.
  • Ensure emergency appliances are intact. 
  • Maintain good housekeeping practices.

Identifying common issues and their solutions

A poorly ventilated barn can become damp, dusty, and contaminated, leading to respiratory problems in livestock and staff. It might even cause increased rust damage to equipment. Keep your barn well-ventilated.

Safety Measures and Regulations

Ensuring compliance with safety standards

Ensure the proper maintenance of tools and equipment to avoid accidents and breakages. Post signs and enforce a no-smoking policy. Remove brush and mulch from around the barn. Frequently clear cobwebs from walls, rafters, light fixtures, and electrical devices. 

Implementing fire safety measures

  • Monitor heat conditions using infrared technologies. 
  • Keep feed, hay, straw, and flammable liquid away from the main barn. 
  • Cover light bulbs to protect them from dust, moisture, and breakage. 
  • Keep oily rags in closed metal containers, away from heat.

Insurance and Liability Considerations

Understanding insurance requirements for the barn

Barn coverage includes protection for equipment in the service of farm buildings, like water pumps, motors, and outdoor equipment. It also covers furniture, fixtures, machinery, and equipment for the operation of the building located in, on, or within 100 feet of the structure.

Mitigating liability risks associated with barn ownership

Identifying and assessing financial and business risks and mitigating the risks that could threaten your barn ownership. The risk of barn collapse under heavy snow load increases with age, poor design, or damage from everyday operations. Some sources of production risks arise from adverse weather conditions such as drought, freezes, or excessive rainfall at harvest or planting.

Financing and Budgeting

Estimating the costs involved in building a barn

The cost to build a barn ranges from 20 to 150 per square foot, including materials and labor, and 30,000 to 120,000 for a 1,200-square-foot structure for animals, hay, or agriculture.

Exploring financing options and creating a budget

To develop a barn budget, list the goals and objectives of the barn installation and resources available for use.

Hiring Contractors and Project Management

Finding reputable contractors for the construction process

Find out from your friends, family, coworkers, or real estate agents for recommendations. 

Managing the project timeline and progress

This project management process includes four phases: designing, planning, installing, and finishing. It may also include a fifth maintenance. By following each step, a project team increases the chance of achieving its goals.

Summary and Key Takeaways

Start by choosing a site for your barn that takes factors like drainage, wind direction, and the position of the sun into consideration. There are different types of floors that you can consider before finishing. A concrete pad to serve as a sturdy foundation. The benefits of building a barn come with increased storage space. Ask around for reliable contractors before you pay one. 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Can I build a barn on any property?

Building a barn on a property is subject to specific zoning and land use regulations in many regions. These rules aim to ensure that barns and agricultural structures are placed on properties designated for agricultural purposes. Here’s a more detailed explanation:

  • Zoning Regulations: Zoning laws divide land into various zones, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural. Barns are typically associated with agricultural zones. If your property is within an agricultural zone, you are more likely to be permitted to construct a barn.
  • Land Use Designation: Some properties come with specific land use designations, such as “agricultural,” allowing for the construction of barns and other agricultural structures. Local government or planning departments often determine these designations.
  • Agricultural Activities: The intended use of the barn is a crucial factor. Barns are primarily built for agricultural purposes like livestock housing, crop storage, or equipment storage. Demonstrating that your barn will serve legitimate agricultural functions is often a requirement.
  • Size and Setbacks: Even within agricultural zones, regulations may govern barn size, height, and placement. Setback requirements are typically enforced, determining the distance between the barn and property lines or other structures.
  • Permits and Approvals: Usually, you will need to secure permits and approvals from your local zoning or planning department to build a barn. These permits ensure your barn project complies with local regulations.
  • Environmental Considerations: In certain areas, environmental regulations may come into play, particularly if your barn project could affect local ecosystems, water sources, or protected lands.
  • Historical or Conservation Areas: If your property falls within a historical district or conservation area, additional guidelines and restrictions on construction, including barns, may apply.

Before planning to build a barn, it’s crucial to research and understand your area’s specific zoning and land use regulations. Consulting with your local zoning or planning department will provide detailed information on whether a barn can be constructed on your property and the requirements you must fulfill. This ensures compliance with local laws and regulations related to barn construction.

Are there any size limitations for barn construction?

Yes, size limitations for barn construction exist, and they depend on factors like location, zoning regulations, and available space. Here’s a detailed explanation:

  • Zoning Regulations: Zoning laws set maximum sizes and heights for structures, including barns, in specific zones. These rules aim to harmonize buildings with the environment. Consult your local zoning or planning department for specifics in your area.
  • Space Availability: Your property’s available space impacts barn size. Lot dimensions, property line setbacks, and existing structures affect permissible barn size.
  • Roof Height: Municipalities often regulate maximum roof heights to maintain visual harmony and prevent towering structures. Roof height limits vary by location.
  • Rural vs. Suburban Settings: Size limits are more common in suburban or urban areas with higher property density. Rural areas may offer more flexibility due to larger properties and fewer neighbors.
  • Special Zoning or Permits: Some areas have special zones or permits for larger agricultural or commercial structures, including barns. Additional requirements or permits may apply.
  • Historical or Conservation Areas: Historical districts or conservation areas may have guidelines impacting barn size and design to preserve the area’s character.

Contact your local zoning or planning department to determine size limitations and regulations for your barn construction. They’ll provide details on zoning, setback rules, roof height limits, and any necessary permits. This ensures compliance with local regulations when planning your barn project.

How long does it typically take to build a barn?

The construction timeline for a barn varies based on factors including size, complexity, purpose, weather, materials, builder’s experience, and resources. Here are general timeframes for barn construction:

  1. Small Barns: Basic storage or shelter structures typically take a few weeks to a few months, depending on specific needs and builder availability.
  2. Medium-Sized Barns: Barns for livestock or equipment may take a few months, encompassing site prep, foundation work, framing, and finishing.
  3. Large or Custom Barns: Intricate designs, special features, or multifunctional barns can take several months to over a year due to customization, complex roofing, and specialized materials or labor.
  4. Site Preparation: Clearing, grading, and foundation work can add weeks to months, contingent on site conditions.
  5. Weather Conditions: Harsh winters or frequent rain can cause delays.
  6. Permitting and Approvals: Timelines vary by location and may extend construction schedules by weeks.
  7. Availability of Materials: Sourcing materials, especially during high demand, may affect timing.
  8. Builder’s Schedule: Builder availability influences timelines; busy builders may have longer lead times.
  9. Project Planning: Effective coordination among stakeholders streamlines construction and reduces delays.

For a precise estimate, consult experienced contractors or builders who consider your needs, location, local codes, and other relevant factors in crafting a construction timeline.

What are the primary factors affecting the cost of building a barn?

The cost of building a barn varies based on key factors:

  • Size and Design: Larger or complex barns with features like lofts or stalls cost more.
  • Materials: Choices such as wood or metal, and material quality, affect expenses.
  • Foundation: The type of foundation needed, like concrete or piers, impacts costs.
  • Location and Site Prep: Terrain, accessibility, and site preparation affect expenses.
  • Labor Costs: Skilled labor and specialty trades may have higher rates.
  • Permits and Regulations: Compliance with permits, codes, and regulations involves fees.
  • Utilities: Adding electricity, plumbing, or HVAC systems increases costs.
  • Interior Features: Stalls, insulation, ventilation, and customization affect expenses.
  • Roofing: Roof material, design, and quality influence costs.
  • Finishes and Aesthetics: Siding, paint, and architectural details add to expenses.
  • Insurance and Maintenance: Consider ongoing costs like insurance and upkeep.
  • Geographic Location: Regional cost variations based on labor and materials impact prices.
  • Market Conditions: Economic factors like material prices can lead to cost variations.
  • Budget: Balancing your budget with barn specifications is crucial.

Consult experienced contractors, architects, or builders for accurate cost estimates tailored to your needs and location to plan your barn project effectively.

Do I need a building permit to construct a small barn?

A municipal building permit is typically needed to construct a small barn. However, requirements vary based on location, barn size, and intended use. Key considerations:

  • Permit Requirements: Municipality regulations differ on when a permit is required. Barn size, location, and purpose influence permit necessity.
  • Zoning Regulations: Contact your local zoning department for area-specific barn construction rules. Zoning laws may specify size limits and setback requirements.
  • Intended Use: The barn’s purpose affects permit needs. Agricultural, storage, or animal shelter use may have distinct regulations.
  • Building Codes: Small barns must meet building codes for structural integrity, safety, and compliance with electrical and plumbing standards.
  • Application Process: Obtain a permit by applying to your local building department. Include barn design, location, and use details.
  • Inspections: Municipalities may inspect barn construction stages to ensure code and regulation compliance.
  • Penalties for Non-Compliance: Building without permits can lead to fines, delays, and legal issues. Adhere to proper permitting.
  • Professional Assistance: Consult architects, builders, or local experts familiar with municipal regulations for guidance through the permitting process.

To determine exact permit requirements, contact your local municipality or zoning department. Adhering to local rules ensures a compliant and smooth small barn construction.

Are there any specific regulations for barns in residential areas?

Specific regulations govern barn construction and use in residential areas, ensuring safety, integrity, and compliance. Key considerations:

  • Zoning Laws: Check local zoning regulations to determine if barns are allowed on your property. Comply with district-specific zoning laws.
  • Building Codes: Adhere to local building codes covering structural integrity, safety, electrical systems, and plumbing during barn design and construction.
  • Permits: Depending on barn size and purpose, secure necessary permits (e.g., building, electrical, plumbing) from the local building department.
  • Setback Requirements: Abide by setback regulations, specifying minimum distances from property lines, roads, and neighboring structures to avoid legal issues.
  • Environmental Regulations: If your barn project affects the environment, follow relevant environmental regulations, including waste management and water runoff considerations.
  • Historical Preservation: Historic barns may have preservation requirements; seek approvals and adhere to preservation guidelines for modifications.
  • HOA Rules: Review homeowners’ association (HOA) regulations in residential neighborhoods, which may detail construction and appearance guidelines for structures like barns.
  • Safety Features: Include essential safety features in your barn, such as fire prevention measures, proper ventilation, and secure storage of hazardous materials.
  • Utility Connections: Plan utility connections (electricity, water) in line with local utility and safety regulations.
  • Accessibility: For public events or gatherings in the barn, address accessibility requirements, including provisions for individuals with disabilities.
  • Consult Professionals: Engage architects, contractors, or zoning experts with local regulation expertise to ensure compliance with laws and codes.

Can I convert an existing structure into a barn?

Converting an existing structure into a barn is possible but involves key considerations:

  • Planning Permission: You’ll need permits from local authorities in many areas. Check with your local government for specific requirements.
  • Building Codes: Ensure your project complies with safety regulations and codes. Modifications may be necessary for occupant and animal safety.
  • Structural Assessment: Assess the existing structure’s integrity, including the foundation, roof, walls, and stability. Repair or modify as needed for safety.
  • Utility Connections: Plan for electricity, water, and plumbing to suit the new use.
  • Insulation and Ventilation: Proper insulation and ventilation are crucial for livestock comfort. Ensure temperature control and air quality.
  • Permit Costs: Be prepared for permit-related expenses and compliance with regulations.
  • Environmental Impact: Consider local environmental regulations, especially if your conversion affects the ecosystem or water supply.
  • Historical or Cultural Preservation: Preserve historically or culturally significant structures by adhering to preservation guidelines.
  • Professional Guidance: Consult experienced architects, contractors, or building professionals for legal requirements, safety, and design expertise.

What are some maintenance tasks for barn owners?

Maintaining a barn is crucial for animal well-being, equipment safety, and structure longevity. Here are key maintenance tasks:

  1. Safety Checks: Regularly inspect the structure for wear and damage, focusing on the roof, walls, foundation, and support beams. Promptly address issues to prevent accidents or further harm.
  2. Cleaning: Regularly remove dirt, dust, cobwebs, and debris from the barn. Clean and disinfect stalls and feeding areas to reduce pest risks and ensure a healthy environment.
  3. Water Management: Keep water buckets, troughs, and automatic waterers clean and functional. Refill them daily for a constant supply of fresh water.
  4. Feeding: Check feed and hay storage for pests or mold. Seal feed containers to prevent contamination. Use older feed first for freshness.
  5. Ventilation: Maintain proper ventilation to prevent moisture buildup, which can lead to mold and animal respiratory issues. Clean or replace vents and fans as needed.
  6. Electrical Systems: Inspect lighting and outlets regularly for damage. Promptly replace faulty wiring or fixtures to reduce fire hazards.
  7. Gates and Fencing: Inspect and repair gates and fencing to ensure animal safety and security. Loose or damaged fencing can lead to escapes or injuries.
  8. Rodent and Pest Control: Implement measures to control rodents and pests, including traps, entry point sealing, and barn cleanliness to prevent structural damage and disease transmission.
  9. Emergency Preparedness: Maintain a well-stocked first-aid kit for animals and humans. Be familiar with fire evacuation plans and injury management procedures.
  10. Seasonal Maintenance: Adjust tasks by season. In winter, ensure heating systems work and address ice buildup. In summer, manage ventilation and provide shade for animal comfort.
  11. Equipment Maintenance: Regularly service and maintain farm equipment stored in the barn, following manufacturer recommendations.
  12. Record Keeping: Document maintenance tasks, repairs, and issues encountered. This helps identify patterns and anticipate future needs.
  13. Consult Professionals: For major or complex tasks, consult electricians, plumbers, or structural engineers to ensure safety and compliance with regulations.

Regular, proactive maintenance ensures barn functionality and safety. These tasks create a comfortable and secure environment for animals and equipment.

Are there any tax benefits associated with owning a barn?

Owning a barn can yield tax benefits based on your specific situation and barn usage. These benefits typically stem from local, state, and federal tax laws. Consider the following potential advantages:

  1. Agricultural Exemptions: Many areas grant property tax exemptions or reduced rates for agricultural property, including barns. These exemptions support farming and reduce property tax expenses.
  2. Depreciation: Barns qualify as depreciable assets for tax purposes. You can deduct a portion of the barn’s cost over time, lowering your taxable income.
  3. Farm Credits: Depending on your location and barn usage, you may qualify for farm-related tax credits. These credits can offset tax liabilities. Common ones include credits for energy-efficient improvements, conservation practices, or hiring agricultural workers.
  4. Income Deductions: If your barn generates income, like crop storage, livestock housing, or hosting agricultural events, deduct related expenses from your income, reducing taxable earnings.
  5. Conservation Easements: Donating a conservation easement on your barn or farm property to a qualified organization can yield tax benefits, such as income tax deductions and potential estate tax advantages.
  6. Local Incentives: Some local governments incentivize maintaining historic barns or supporting rural preservation. These incentives may include property tax reductions or credits.
  7. Federal Benefits: Federal tax laws may offer deductions or credits related to agricultural activities. Consult with a tax professional or accountant specializing in agriculture to optimize federal benefits.

Tax laws and incentives vary by location and barn use. To maximize benefits and comply with tax regulations, consult with a tax professional or accountant well-versed in agricultural taxation. They offer personalized guidance tailored to your circumstances, ensuring you leverage available tax advantages from barn ownership.

How do I protect my barn from pests and wildlife?

Protecting your barn from pests and wildlife requires a practical approach:

  • Install Netting or Screens: Put netting or screens on windows and doors to keep out birds and rodents while allowing ventilation. Ensure they’re in good condition.
  • Bird Spikes: Install bird spikes on beams and rafters to discourage roosting.
  • Feed Storage: Store animal feed in sealed containers and promptly clean up any spills to avoid attracting pests.
  • Maintain Cleanliness: Regularly clean the barn to remove debris, nests, and droppings that attract unwanted visitors.
  • Seal Entry Points: Thoroughly inspect the barn for holes or gaps and seal them with materials like caulking or mesh.
  • Traps and Repellents: Use traps or natural repellents to address specific pests, like mousetraps for rodents or motion-activated lights for larger wildlife.
  • Regular Maintenance: Make barn maintenance routine, checking for signs of pest activity and addressing them promptly.
  • Consult a Professional: If you face persistent or severe pest issues, seek advice from pest control professionals for tailored solutions.
  • Environmental Considerations: Be mindful of the environment and local regulations when implementing pest control measures. Choose eco-friendly and humane options whenever possible.

Following these steps and maintaining a proactive approach to barn pest and wildlife management can create a healthier environment for your livestock and stored goods while minimizing unwanted visitors’ impact.

David D. Hughes

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